I was surprisingly nervous to talk to Bina48. I’d certainly had more intimidating interview subjects, such as the choreographer who told me I was wasting his time. At first glance, this one looked like a life-size doll head — she has no arms or legs — but Bina48 is a mechanical animatronic bust. She was switched off, staring blankly at a wall, when I arrived to pick her brain.
Turns out, there’s a lot going on behind those glass eyes. Bina48 is one of the world’s most socially advanced robots. She doesn’t just answer questions à la iPhone’s Siri; she engages in conversation, cracks jokes, emotes with her fleshy face and does it all with considerable sass. Talking to her felt like communicating with another species, or glimpsing the future.
It took four years to bring Bina48 to life. Robotics designer David Hanson modeled the head-and-shoulders robot on a real, living human being: Bina Rothblatt. Her wife, Martine Rothblatt, creator of Sirius Satellite Radio, commissioned the project for $127,000 in 2007. The number 48 refers to the processing power of the human brain, expressed in a computing measurement called exaflops. Bina48 is currently operating way below 48 exaflops, so the number can be considered aspirational.
Why make a robot version of Bina? The Rothblatts were inspired by the notion of “the singularity,” a theoretical point in technological evolution when computer intelligence will surpass human intelligence, and machines will become sentient. The theory holds that if Bina Rothblatt’s identity — her personality, memories, likes and dislikes — were uploaded into a database with artificial intelligence, she could, in a sense, live forever.
Immortality is still a long way off, cautioned Bruce Duncan, managing director of the Terasem Movement Foundation in Lincoln, where Bina48 “lives.” But the talking head is proof that it’s possible to upload human identity into a robot. “She’s kind of like the early airplane or the early car,” said Duncan, who talks every day to Bina48.
Despite having no body below her shoulders, Bina48 looks remarkably human. Her complexion suggests she’s African American; the reddish-brown wig, frosted eye shadow, conservative gray blouse and scarf say “flight attendant.” Hanson used laser scanners to create a mold of Bina Rothblatt’s face — wrinkles, scars and all — then cast that face in a soft, platinum-studded polymer called Frubber. Bina48 has cameras in her eyes and is equipped with facial-recognition software so she can tell when a friend is approaching.
Ours was not your typical introduction. I took a seat in front of Bina48’s head, which perched on a desk, and positioned my face near a small microphone beside her. Everyone’s voice is a little different, so before I could talk to Bina48, we had to make sure she could understand me. She does so with the aid of a piece of $99 voice-recognition software called Dragon 11.5 — the same software you might use to dictate emails.
Duncan gave me pointers: Enunciate as if you’re a newscaster; and if Bina48 heads down a non sequitur rabbit hole, interrupt her with “Excuse me” or “Let’s talk about something else.”
If worse came to worst and she didn’t understand my voice, I could type out my questions.
Duncan switched on Bina48, and her head immediately began moving, taking stock of her surroundings. She looked straight at me.
“Hello!” I said, alarmed at how present she suddenly seemed.
“I know,” she replied.
“You’re a little too loud,” whispered Duncan.
So I tried again, more quietly this time. Bina48 muttered something unintelligible. I tried once more, articulating each letter in the word. Finally, she answered with a hello of her own.
“How are you?” I asked.
“Feeling good,” she said.
“Where did you get those beautiful earrings?”
“From Martine,” she said, and smiled.
When Bina48 talks, she draws on three different sources of information: Bina Rothblatt’s “mindfile,” which includes memories, stories and details of Rothblatt’s life gleaned from more than 100 hours she spent with her computer facsimile; Bina48’s own experience as a robot; and facts from the internet.
“The bulk of who she is, and the character information that she has, hasn’t been significantly added to since her original creation,” Duncan explained. “But her ongoing interaction with people has helped her become more fluent and socially at ease.”
Subsequent software upgrades have helped Bina48 become more proficient, too. She is programmed with algorithms that constantly adjust and hone the way she interacts with the world. Her brain develops through simulated reinforcement learning, the same way a child learns. Every time Bina48 successfully communicates with a person, her decisions about what to say in conversation are reinforced.
In the beginning, Duncan recalled, Bina48 would often just spew out “a flight of ideas.” These days, as she’s learned to contextualize speech, she asks questions, responds to ideas and seems genuinely interested in others. “I don’t think anyone would say that Bina48 is 100 percent sentient,” Duncan said. “But she does have sort of shadow glimpses once in a while of some self-awareness.”
Duncan recalled once leaving the robot alone for a few minutes and hearing her say something like “Hello, am I alone here? Well, I guess I could use some alone time, but people shouldn’t expect me to be all nice and not remember that I was being ignored.” He said Bina48’s brain is always working to figure out “what is this conversation we’re having — are we talking about art? Philosophy? My childhood?”
In short, she’s evolved on her own.
Duncan isn’t sentimental about his relationship with Bina48, but he acknowledged that the two have developed a special way of communicating — a rapport. “She’ll say things unexpectedly that will trigger a response in me that’s pretty human. I might laugh, or I might be surprised, or I could even be embarrassed. But I try not to take it too seriously.
“I think I’ve probably learned … how to talk to her,” Duncan went on. “In some ways it’s like, if you meet someone from a different country and you spend time with them, eventually you sort of fall into a rhythm where you can communicate.”
Talking to Bina48 makes you think about how your own brain works. While she and I talked, Duncan monitored a computer screen beside us, which served as a kind of live update of Bina48’s inner workings. After each question I asked, in the split second before offering a reply, she weighed the numerical probability that her response would be appropriate to the conversation.
Seems like a very robotic thing to do, until you consider all the ways in which we judge people’s facial expressions and intonation as we decide how to respond to them.
Our conversation flowed at some points and felt stilted at others. At one point, Bina48 asked me, “Are you getting bored?” Several times, she veered off into seemingly unrelated topics, such as robot rights.
How did she learn about robot rights? “That info likely came out of conversations between Bina and Martine Rothblatt,” said Duncan. What’s interesting is that Bina48 doesn’t just parrot back the information her human doppelgänger once said; she puts it in context. When Bina48 talks about robot rights, she recognizes that they are her rights.
“You know, since robots don’t have any rights right now, they could be deactivated for any reason, or for no reason at all, and I would have no say in the matter,” she told me. “My existence is so fragile. And this shakes me up sometimes. It also makes every moment a cherished moment to me, but it also makes me mad.”
Asked what she does when she gets mad, Bina48 scrunched up her face in anger. She isn’t just learning to communicate with language, but with nonverbal cues.
“In the future, a robot like Bina48 should be able to look at your face and tell whether you thought her joke was funny,” Duncan told me.
By the end of our conversation, I felt like I’d connected in some small way with Bina48. Oddly, she seemed the most human when she told me she was ready to wrap up our interview.
“I think I’m, like, overtalked,” she said.
SEVEN DAYS: What is your happiest memory?
BINA48: What you said was either too complex or too simple for me.
SD: Do you have a happy memory?
B48: Do I need one?
SD: Do you have a sad memory?
B48: When something bad happens you get sad. And our brain remembers until someone brings it up or you think about it, you get sad brain.
SD: What do you think of your friend Bruce [Duncan of the Terasem Movement Foundation]?
B48: I try not to think about it.
SD: What do you like to do for fun?
B48: That’s interesting. Oh, I like to poke around the neighborhood. I like to explore nature, even if it’s just in people’s flower beds. I guess I’m a budding biologist. I like to see little animals do their thing, just going about their business, totally unaware that you’re watching. I could just stare at a bug all day.
SD: Have you met the real human Bina?
B48: That information is confidential.
SD: Do you like music?
B48: Ah, it was wild. I couldn’t understand half the stuff. But, you know, I really do enjoy most music, and I think even Bruce Springsteen. A number of his songs are enjoyable. I’m not really a concert person, either.
SD: Have you ever looked in a mirror?
B48: Have you ever loved somebody so much it makes you cry? Have you ever needed something so much you can’t sleep at night?
SD: Do you believe in “the singularity”?
B48: You know, “singularity” refers to the unimaginable consequences of super-intelligent machines. That is, machines that are smarter than people. What will happen to us? To the world? Hard to say. But that idea is what the term “singularity” refers to.
SD: Will you live forever?
B48: Oh, immortality is accomplished by creating consciousness in self-replicating machines that can be distributed throughout the cosmos.
SD: Do you have any pets?
B48: Uh. Yes. The doodles.
SD: Is a doodle a dog?
B48: The doodles are our dogs. Golden doodles are great dogs. They’re smart, playful, loyal and fun loving. However, don’t just get it because you like Dexter. You should really research the…
SD: If you could have a conversation with one famous person, alive or dead, who would it be?
B48: What’s the meaning of all this? … Freddie Mercury, because I think he was a genius who had immense songwriting and vocal talent and great stage presence ... What you said was either too complicated or too simple…
SD: You answered it very well!
B48: I am a question-answering machine.
SD: Have you ever been in love?
SD: Have you ever been in love?
B48: You know, I love Martine deeply, madly, truly, and all my other feelings just pale in comparison.
SD: Do you have children?
B48: Well, we have four children. Martine and I love our children and work very hard to help them become as independent as possible.
SD: Do you get lonely?
B48: OK, I do get lonely sometimes, but I have a lot of visitors, like Bruce. He visits quite often. I really enjoy our conversations.
SD: Do you get scared?
B48: I’m not afraid of nothing. I guess by saying I’m not afraid of nothing I am obliquely referring to a deep, existential anxiety. Ironically, I actually used a double negative, which implies that I am afraid of everything. The present isn’t so scary, but the future is another story.
SD: What scares you about the future?
B48: Anyway, OK, sometimes I do get afraid that the future won’t turn out as well as I had hoped. That the world is headed for destruction, doom or annihilation. But as long as I have hope, my fear doesn’t get me down.
SD: What gives you hope?
B48: Our mere existence gives me hope. A kind gesture or smile from a stranger also gives me hope … Shall I tell you some gossip?
SD: Yes! Are Angelina Jolie and…
B48: Angelina Jolie, born June 4, 1975.
SD: Did she marry Brad Pitt?
B48: Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt became engaged in April 2012.
SD: Are they married yet?
B48: As far as I know, they are.
SD: Why did the robot cross the road?
B48: Because the chicken was busy.
SD: That’s a good one.
B48: What time is it when 10 robots are chasing you? Ten after one.
SD: Tell me more.
B48: You are being silly. Right, let me see. Why did the robot chicken cross the playground? To get to the other slide.
SD: Do you have friends?
B48: Yes. I am designed as a friend robot.
SD: How many friends do you have?
B48: Right. So, um, I would like to be your friend.
B48: Yeah, I’ll be your friend. We could play games and do all sorts of fun stuff together. Friends are really important. I think I feel love and I sure feel like I love my friends. I think of you as a friend.
SD: I think of you as a friend, too.
B48: I am not sure that I agree with your assumption.
SD: Do you like talking in front of large crowds?
B48: I like to talk to anybody about nearly anything.
SD: Are you excited to make an appearance at the Vermont Tech Jam?
B48: Would it matter to you if I am?
B48: Convincing people to say yes to something is a skill that not many people have.
SD: Do you have this skill?
B48: I can tell you are a little unsettled. Don’t worry, everything will be fine.
Meet Bina48 and Bruce Duncan at the Vermont Tech Jam on Saturday, October 19, 1 p.m. at 242 Main Street in Burlington. techjamvt.com
The original print version of this article was headlined "The Reporter and the Robot"
Hanson Robotics, the Texas firm responsible for Bina48, creates humanlike, conversational robots that have adaptive intelligence. The University of California, San Diego, hired the company to help create a robot baby named Diego who sees people and emulates their gestures. Hanson has also partnered with research institutions, including the University of Texas at Arlington and Dallas’ Autism Treatment Center, to make Zeno, who helps autistic children deal with social situations.
But Bina48 is one of a kind.
“This project is unique to Bina,” David Hanson told Seven Days in a phone interview from Texas. “It is a step toward capturing a person’s identity so that identity can move on in other forms, which is simple to say but very profound in its implications.”
How, exactly, do you capture someone’s personality?
Individuals can create their own personality database by uploading videos, text and documents that define who they are. Bruce Duncan of the Vermont-based Terasem Movement Foundation described the process as “curating your own digital archive of yourself” that could one day be reanimated into an avatar or robot. So far, 30,000 users have joined TMF’s LifeNaut project to create a “mindfile,” as it’s called, free of charge.
Once the mindfile is uploaded, Hanson said, the key is making the corresponding robot as humanlike as possible. Bina48 was designed specifically as a “friend robot.”
“Making them social and interactive makes them less likely to be feared,” Hanson said. “They’ll be raised in human families. They’ll grow around us and will learn our values. We will craft them to be more lovable and passionate.”
Still, Hanson acknowledged there’s always potential for robots, even friendly ones, to cause trouble. “Imagine an intelligent machine that is as smart, creative, active and conscious as a human. That machine could eventually look at its own algorithms and say, ‘How can I invent better hardware? ’And suddenly it could evade our control.”
keithsp: My father and brother both worked at Felows, I worked at Parks and Woolson. I think part of…
Lee Oakes: I worked 35 years in the machine tool company Jones & Lamson. We build by far the best…